The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a virulence mechanism employed by Gram-negative pathogens. The T3SS forms a proteinaceous channel that projects a needle into the extracellular medium where it interacts with the host cell to deliver virulence factors. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is unique in adopting a needle extension to the T3SS—a filament formed by EspA—which is absolutely required for efficient colonization of the gut. Here, we describe the cryoelectron microscopy structure of native EspA filaments from EPEC at 3.6-Å resolution. Within the filament, positively charged residues adjacent to a hydrophobic groove line the lumen of the filament in a spiral manner, suggesting a mechanism of substrate translocation mediated via electrostatics. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, in vivo studies corroborate the role of these residues in secretion and translocation function. The high-resolution structure of the EspA filament could aid in structure-guided drug design of antivirulence therapeutics.
< Back to Articles